The Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (JPSP) — considered social psychology’s flagship journal — recently announced their new replication policy, which officially states:
Although not a central part of its mission, the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology values replications and encourages submissions that attempt to replicate important findings previously published in social and personality psychology. Major criteria for publication of replication papers include:
- the theoretical importance of the finding being replicated
- the statistical power of the replication study or studies
- the extent to which the methodology, procedure, and materials match those of the original study
- the number and power of previous replications of the same finding
- Novelty of theoretical or empirical contribution is not a major criterion, although evidence of moderators of a finding would be a positive factor.
Preference will be given to submissions by researchers other than the authors of the original finding, that present direct rather than conceptual replications, and that include attempts to replicate more than one study of a multi-study original publication. However, papers that do not meet these criteria will be considered as well.
Given my “pre-cognitive abilities”1, we actually submitted a replication paper to JPSP about 2 weeks *prior* to their announcement, reporting the results of two unsuccessful high-powered replication attempts of Correll’s (2008, Exp 2) 1/f noise racial bias effect. Exactly one day after the new replication policy was announced we received this rejection letter:
Your paper stands high on several of [our replication policy] criteria. You worked with the author of the original paper to duplicate materials and procedures as closely as possible, and pre-registered your data collection and analysis plans. Your studies are adequately powered. However, I have concluded that because the impact of the original Correll article has been minimal, an article aimed at replicating his findings does not have the magnitude of conceptual impact that we are looking for in the new replication section. Thus, I will decline to publish this manuscript in JPSP. To assess the impact of the Correll (2008) paper, since it is 6 years old, I turned to citation data. It has been cited 22 times (according to Web of Science) but the vast majority are journals such as Human Movement Science, Ecological Psychology, or Physics Reports, far outside our field. I have not looked at all of the citing articles, of course, but the typical citation of Correll’s work appears to be as an in-passing example of the application of dynamical systems logic. There are only two citations within social psychology. One is Correll’s 2011 JESP follow-up (which itself has been cited only twice, again by journals far outside our field). The second is an Annual Review of Psychology article on gender development (in which again Correll’s 2008 paper is cited in passing as an example of dynamical approaches). I have to conclude that Correll’s paper has had zero substantive impact in social psychology, attracting attention almost exclusively from researchers (mostly outside our field) who cite it as an example application of a specific conceptual and analytic approach. Such citations have little or nothing to do with the substance of the finding that you failed to replicate – the impact of task instructions on the PSD slope. In sum, my decision on your replication manuscript is not based on any deficiencies in your work, but on the virtually complete lack of impact of the original finding within our field.
I responded to the decision letter with the following email:
Thanks for your quick response regarding our replication manuscript (PSP-A-2014-0114). Of course it is not the outcome we had hoped for, however, we respect your decision. That being said, I would like to point out what seems to be a major discrepancy between the official policy for publication of replication papers (theoretical importance of the finding, quality of replication methods, & pre-existing replications of the finding) *and* the primary basis for rejecting our replication paper, which was that the original article had insufficient actual impact in terms of citation count. These two things are distinct and if you will be rejecting papers on the latter criteria, then your official policy should be revised to reflect this fact.
Furthermore, if you do revise your official policy in this way — whereby a major criterion for publishing replication papers is “actual impact” of original article in terms of citation count — this would mean that you could avoid publishing replication papers — no matter how high-quality — for about 85% of published articles in JPSP given the skewed distribution of article citation count whereby the vast majority of articles have minimal actual impact (Seglen, 1992). This kind of strategy would of course be a highly ineffective editorial policy if the goal is to increase the credibility and cumulative nature of empirical findings in JPSP.
To which the editor responded by saying that Corell’s (2008, Exp 2) finding was deemed “important” for methodological reasons and re-iterated that Correll’s research has had “little to no impact within our field.” More importantly, he did not address my two main concerns that their “new replication policy is (1) not well specified and (2) will not be effective in increasing the credibility of empirical findings in JPSP.”2
I responded by saying that they need — at the very least — to revise their official policy to state that they will *only* publish high-quality replication papers of theoretically important findings that have had an *actual* impact in terms of citation count. This of course means that they can avoid publishing replication papers of all recently published JPSP papers *and* the vast majority of JPSP papers that are rarely or never cited, which is simply absurd. Another curious aspect (alluded to by Lorne Campbell) is this: Can an empirical finding actually have an impact on a field if it hasn’t been independently corroborated?
1. Just kidding, I unfortunately do not actually have pre-cognitive abilities though it would be great if I did.
2. This is in contrast to replication policies at more reputable journals — such as Psychological Science, Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, and Journal of Research in Personality — that publish high-quality replication papers of *any* findings originally published in their journal. For examples, see here and here.